CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2025 PDF

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) had released the CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2025. The CBSE 12th class syllabus 2025 helps candidates to gain a greater understanding of the CBSE 12th class exam pattern, marking scheme and CBSE passing marks.

Links to Download CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2025 

The CBSE 12th geography syllabus 2025 is available online in PDF form. Below are a few crucial details that will help candidates download the CBSE 12th class geography syllabus 2025. 

cbse class 12 geography syllabus

How to Download CBSE 12th Class Geography Syllabus 2025?

The steps outlined below will assist candidates in downloading the CBSE 12th Class Geography Syllabus 2025.

  • Candidates must visit the official website of CBSE ( syllabus).
  • They must click on the “Senior Secondary Curriculum.”
  • They are required to click on the academic electives and click on “Geography New Syllabus 2025.”
  • The CBSE 12th grade geography syllabus 2025 will be displayed on the screen.
  • Candidates must click on the download button and save the CBSE class 12th geography syllabus 2025 in pdf form.

Sectional Breakdown of the CBSE class 12th Geography Syllabus 2025 

Given below is a table consisting of the sectional breakdown of the CBSE 12th class Geography syllabus 2025. 

Fundamental of Human GeographyHuman Geography3
The World Population Density Distribution and Growth8
Human Development
Primary Activities19
Secondary Activities
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
Transport, Communication and Trade
International Trade
Map Work5
India People and EconomyPopulation Distribution Density Growth and Composition5
Human Settlements3
Land Resources and Agriculture10
Water Resources
Mineral And Energy Resources
Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
Transport and Communication7
International Trade
Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems5
Map Work5
Grand Total100
CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2025 – Sectional Breakdown

Part A: Fundamentals of Human Geography 

  • Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope 
  • Unit 2: People  The World Population- distribution, density and growth  Population change 
  • Components of population change, Demographic Transition  Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons 
  • Unit 3: Human Activities  Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries  Secondary activities- concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries;  Tertiary activities – concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities 
  •  Quaternary activities- concept; people engaged in quaternary activities – case study from selected countries 
  • Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade  Land transport – roads, railways; transcontinental railways Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes  Air transport- Intercontinental air routes Oil and gas pipelines
  •  Satellite communication and cyber spaceimportance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS  International trade- bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade  
  • Role of WTO in international trade 26 Periods Map Work on identification of features based on 1-5 units on theoutline Physical/Political map of World.

Part B India: People and Economy

  • Unit 6: People  Population: distribution, density and growth
    composition of population – linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population
  •   Unit 7: Human Settlements  Rural settlements – types and distribution  Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification
  • Unit 8: Resources and Development  Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use; geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber); agricultural development and problems  
  • Water resources-availability and utilizationirrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management  
  • Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation 
  •  Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study)

Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade  Transport and communication

  • Roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication net works  
  • International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports

Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems  

  • Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal  Urbanization, rural-urban migration; problems of slums  Land degradation 
  • Map work on locating and labeling of features based on aboveunits on outline map of India.

Part C: Practical Work in Geography Part II

Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping  Type and Sources of data: 

  • Primary, Secondary and other sources 
  •  Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central tendency
  •   Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart; thematic maps; construction of dot; choropleth and isopleths maps

Unit 2: Spatial Information Technology  

  • Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; raster and vector data, data input, editing and topology building; data analysis; overlay and buffer.

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FAQs Related to CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2025

  1. Has the CBSE board reduced the CBSE class 12 geography syllabus 2025?

    The CBSE board has released the latest CBSE 12th grade geography syllabus 2025. students can compare it with last year to have an idea about reduction.

  2. What are the total marks required for the CBSE 12th class geography exam in 2025?

    The total marks for the CBSE geography exam are 70 and 30 for the practical portion.

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